Saturday, March 14, 2020
Che Ernesto "Che"Ã Guevara (1928-1967) Ernesto Guevara got his nickname "che"Ã from Fidel Castro when the were at the hight of the cuban revolution together it means "chum"Ã or "buddy"Ã . He was an avarage citazin who loved politics but always thought and average person cannot change the world. He suffered from severe asthma that always held him back from the sports he loved like soccer, and thought if he was a doctor he could at least change that so he decided to go to school and study medicine to find a cure for his terrible asthma. After he had finnally completed school (some time later) he was able to see how badly his people were held down by the political powers of the world. He met fidel Castros brother (pidro) on one of his two or thhree week excursions he loved to go on and they made plans to take the power the so rightly deserved, and as soon as he was released from jail he met the man who hadf the same views as him Fidel Castro they joined forces in Mexico in 1954.Ra ul Castro, left, with has his arm around second-...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
BUSINESS STUDIES - Dissertation Example Ã¢â¬â CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39 5.1 Conclusion 39 5.2 Recommendations 40 REFERENCE LIST 41 APPENDIX 46 Appendix I Ã¢â¬â Questionnaire 46 Appendix II Ã¢â¬â Focus Group Survey 46 CHAPTER I 1.1 Introduction The evolution of strategic thinking has brought genuine revolution in the way business is conducted. Strategy is also considered as a dominant framework through which companies try to determine what they are actually doing and what they intends to do so (Allio and Randall, 2010). Eminent scholars such as Aaby and McGann (1989) defined strategy as the plan or pattern that assimilates the major goals, actions and policies of the organization into a cohesive form. A well-crafted strategy assists organizations to marshal and dispense the resources into a viable and unique posture on the basis of its relative competencies, deficiencies, anticipated environmental changes and the conditional moves by the competitors. In the context of a business, strategy is often regarded as the activities or actions of the organization. This is the reason why the strategy of a company is regarded as the steps taken by organizations in order to stay ahead of the rivals and bring a new set of customers along with keeping the existing customer base (Coombs and Hull, 1998). A business consists of several resources in the form of skills of employees and managers, innovative capacity, as well as its brand image. There are different types of strategy that a company crafts and implements (Michael, Pride and Ferrell, 2007). Some of the notable ones are the business strategy, which is often regarded as the general strategies of a firm that includes the way operations will be carried out, the human resources planning, the service strategy and other business elements; corporate strategy which defines the business of the company as well as the market of the company in which it operates and also encompasses the mission and vision of the organization; competitive strategy, which d efines the strategy adopted by affirm to outplay the rivals and attain a strong position in the market place. Among the different forms of study mentioned above, this study will focus only on the corporate strategies and customer service strategy. A corporate strategy is the way by which organizations determine the best option of deploying the available resources of a firm. On the other hand the customer service strategy is the strategy pursued by firms to deliver services to the customers. This study intends to explore the impact of well-crafted corporate strategy and customer service strategy on the business of blue-chip companies in the high-tech sector. 1.2 Background of the Study
Monday, February 10, 2020
Sales Management - Essay Example Sales ethics has received a great amount of attention and care since sales persons are required to demonstrate at their best at all times. Sales ethics is deemed as an oxymoron but this is not really the case. Ethics and sales management are inter-linked because the sales people are responsible for maintaining ethical and moral obligations which would form the basis of success in an organization. This is also dependent on the sales management regimes where focus is on making sales through proper measures and undertakings. This paper shall study the basis of sales ethics being an oxymoron or otherwise, however the emphasis is on understanding that sales ethics can bring in the results that are envisaged of it in the long run. Ethics Ã¢â¬â Defined Before moving ahead any further, it is of paramount significance to comprehend that ethics shall always take into consideration the moral ground or the real basis through which actions and behaviors are done. This is indeed something that goes down well with the stakeholders and finds the best way to move forward with them. Ethics shall always comprise of the different ways and means through which behaviors are measured and actions are gauged. What exactly are the Sales Ethics Understandings? The ethical discussions within the quarters of sales come about in an apparent manner when the talk of retailers and customers is done. This is because they are the ones for whom the entire process of sales is carried out. It is the philosophical study related with the moral value of conduct of the human beings as well as the very rules and principles which form the covering behind the same. Sales ethics is all about decision-making, as it decides the good and the bad under the aegis of making a sale or devising strategies to induce sales. It is a fact that sales ethics deals with the norms that come directly under the ethical bases as dictated by any society of the world1. The only difference however from the ethical debates is that there is more business related inputs in sales ethics than in any other place. It would be correct to state that the sales ethics is being governed by morality within business more than anything else. It is for this reason that sales ethics is the talk of the town as far as the business circles are concerned. The topic of sales ethics is receiving a lot of attention these days because it has meant so much for the business regimes. They have focused a great deal on the incorporation of sales ethics within their business processes, actions and behaviors. Comprehending the True Role of Sales Behavior Specifically speaking, sales ethics is derived from the sales management organizations which are doing their best to remain clean from a business standpoint. Their activities are being closely judged by employees, the stakeholders, other competitors and indeed the entire related industrial realms. For this matter, sales ethics holds a lot of significance for the business under consid eration because it pinpoints the basis of growth and development for an organization in terms of its ethical manifestations2. No matter how large or small the decisions are with regards to the business, the sales ethics premise receives criticism as much as applause if there is less or more ethical incorporation within the related realms. For this reason, sales ethics is now being seen as the most contemporary form of sales behavior which is on the round these days. It has to its credit quite a few instances which have been discussed by business management gurus and professionals within their working circles. Sales ethics is for the benefit of all concerned Ã¢â¬â the company, the employees and the customers in essence. It is always a good endeavor to have as much
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Time to make a decision Essay Life has always been filled with numerous surprises. Sometimes, the little things that we take for granted are the things that matter the most. Like any other individual, I am one of those people who give importance to detail. Every time when I open my wallet, a little tiny picture never fails to attract my attention. Four people are in it-my parents, my younger sister, and I. If I remember it correctly, I was twenty five years old and have just been discharged from the military service when the said photo was taken. That was also the time when I was planning to move to the United States to continue my education. Relocating to another land and being far away from the family would become difficult, and the picture would become my only memory with them while I was away. The said picture also served as my inspiration whenever I was in doubt and feeling hopeless; and I would be reminded that everything would turn out alright. It was also the very picture that made me nostalgic about the particular period in time that forever changed the course of my life. 2 I am originally from Korea, making me Korean. In our country, every man is obliged to indulge in two years of military service. At twenty two, I was still a university student and relied for the care and support of my parents. All my life, they have always been there for me attending to my needs and desires in life. However, they wanted me to become independent and learn to stand on my own two legs. I though about it and realized that entering the military would help me to fulfill this wish. The service would help me to improve myself and become an independent individual ready to serve my country. More importantly, it became the opportunity for me to delay time and weigh my options before I graduated from college. 3On February 2003, I decided to put my education on hold and enter the military service. This decision allowed me to see that I was no longer interested in my intended major, which was Environment Science. I realized that the course was becoming more popular in our country, making it more difficult for me to acquire a job in the said field after graduation. In addition to this, I became confused about my future, for the economic outlook in my country was becoming hazy. Certain situations have backed up my decision, making me tremble and think about my future further. I had to carefully whey my options, at the same time be prepared for what the future has in store for me. So I decided that it was just but proper for me to do military service for the next two years. 4Being involved in the military service meant that I had to be away from my family. It was the first time in my life that I had to survive on my own, and without the help of my parents. This instance allowed me to further think about the life that I was about to live. I wanted to try new experiences that can help me improve myself and become a better individual. During these times of ordeal, my parents advised me to indulge in alternative service rather than join the army. Most people would opt to join the army, but I decided that it was better for me to take the alternative service; in this case was join the police. My parents and I agreed that entering the service would come to my advantage and help me to become successful in the future. The two years I spent at the Department of Police was a very useful experience. Compared to being in the army and battling out in wars, my work was similar to that of office work. I also experienced stress from time to time, but I clearly understood that social life is also part of the military service. Furthermore, I realized that aside from my numerous experiences in the service, I had to expand my intellectual horizon further in order to become an important person in society after I have finished my military service. 5Two years have passed, and I was finally discharged from military service. However, I felt that something else was missing. Serving the military for two years was not enough for me to become fulfilled in life. It was as if my purpose in life was not completely over. Then I began to realize that military service was not enough for me to expand my intellectual horizon. Although the rigorous trainings in the military have turned me into a manly figure, I felt that I was still an immature young man with a superficial view of everything. I struggled to help myself by going out and expanding my horizons, but still I failed. I pondered on my life and began to ask for the assistance of my parents. I felt that it was necessary for me to study abroad and see beyond what is being laid in front of me. I convinced them that I want to find my purpose in life by studying in another country, and that I would be back in Korea sooner than expected. They agreed, and so I packed my bags and moved to the United States. So goes the rest of my story. 6As I look back on the decisions that I made in the past, I cannot help but feel proud about myself. For the first time, I was able to prove to myself that I could leave the shadow of my parents and stand up for my self. I felt that moving to the United States was a fairly brave decision, for not all people would have the guts to move to a different country to enhance their education. Adjusting to a world that was far different from what I was accustomed to became difficult at first. My English vocabulary was limited, and I did not know enough people in the country. Unfortunately I received news that my father has left the company he has been working for due to the depleting economy, and has decided to open his own business instead. For that time being, I had to find ways to support myself for that would mean that my father would have difficulty sending financial aid during my stay in the United States. I was being emotionally challenged, for I could feel the heartache that my family, especially my father was having at that particular time. He had difficulty sleeping, and would stay up even after midnight smoking cigarette one after the other completely consumed by his thoughts. Eventually my parents talked me into moving to the United States. I saw through their eyes, and I felt that they were not yet ready for such brave move, with my mother trying to hide her fears. Again, I felt sorry for my parents and the condition that my family may go through. However, I began to remember the days when my parents would talk to me about seeking a better life, and supporting me when I decided to study abroad. 7I am currently a college student studying in the United States, fulfilling my dreams of someday becoming a successful individual. I am also a young Korean man who has finished mandatory military service for two years in my country. The two years that I have spent in the service were the hardest in my life, although these experiences have contributed into who I am today. Time has passed and it has been three years since I left my home country. Still, I cannot forget the good times and bad times I spent with my family in Korea. The distance also allowed me to appreciate my parents more, and learn that life is short. I would forever be thankful for the opportunity that my parents have given me, especially in my quest for further knowledge in an unknown land. Seeing the world in a different light may seem difficult for many, but I believe that now is my chance to shine and plan for my future. I know that studying in the United States would not be easy, and when this happens I would think about the difficult times I spent in the military. Doing so would make me believe in myself and in my capacities. Now, I believe that I am ready in all aspects. I have this unstoppable thirst for learning new and exciting ideas. I believe that completing my education in the Untied States would become a cool cup of water that will soothe the many years of thirst.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
KKK The Klu Klux Klan called themselves the white knights because they rode around on horses. They wore white sheets over their heads and dressed their horses in white sheets and rode in neighborhoods where black people lived. They brought terror into the lives of the African Americans. The symbol of the Klu Klux Klan was the burning cross. A KKK member once stated, "We do not burn the cross to symbolize the destruction of it, but to enlighten it." The name Klu Klux Klan derived from the Greek word "kuklos," meaning circle or wheel. The Klu Klux Klan was considered to be a "fraternal organization." It grew out of the Civil War to protect and preserve the white race. It was to ensure the "voluntary separation" of the races. In many cases that meant the termination of blacks, Catholics, and Jews. The Ku Klux Klan is one of America's oldest and most feared groups. Motivated by the dream of a world with only one race, the KKK uses violence and does things that are against the law to support their cause. They have been in the shadows for over 130 years, and occasionally continue to succeed in America's society today. The Ku Klux Klan began during the rebuilding process after the Civil War in the Southern United States. The southern people had suffered a lot from the effects of the Civil War. Many of them lost their homes and plantations; many also lost friends and loved ones to the war. In 1865, six men from a small town in Tennessee began what has grown to be the largest and most feared "hate group" in the United States. The men decided to make a club to help relieve the stress of the times. All of the men were poor and could not afford to make uniforms for the group, so they decided to use plain, white sheets. They wore the sheets over their backs and put pillowcases on their heads. They also draped the sheets over their horses. In the beginning, the men only wanted to play pranks on people to try to cheer them up after the terrible war. But the people were more frightened than they were cheered up. They soon figured out what they could do with these fearful pranks.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
| Outlining an Informative SpeechAnabolic Steroids in Sports| | | OUTLINE OF SPEECH ATTENTION-GETTING OPENER An athlete is a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina. Athletes train and practice year-round to prepare for the competition and challenges. Most high school, college, amateur and professional athletes participate in sports for the opportunity to pit their abilities against those of their peers, and to experience the satisfaction that comes from playing to their potential. Others do so to satisfy a desire for recognition and fame.Unfortunately all this creates some athletes who are determined to win at any cost. Have you heard or know of anyone who has used anabolic steroids? PREVIEW Today I will give you some interesting facts about the use of anabolic steroids in sports. I Description and definition II Reasons for using III Famous Athletes IV Effects V Solutions BODY TRANSITION: To better understand m y report, first we should know what anabolic steroids are. I Description and definition A. A group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone, are used medically especially to promote tissue growth B.Are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve endurance C. Non-medical use of anabolic steroids is illegal and banned by most major sports organizations D. In January 2005, the Anabolic Steroid Control Act was amended with the Controlled Substance Act that added anabolic steroids to the list of controlled substances and makes possession of the substances a federal crime TRANSITION: You may be asking by now, what are the reasons that make athletes use these drugs? II Reasons for using A. To gain advantage B. Lack of self esteem C.Peer, competitive, fan and media pressure TRANSITION: Now, I will mention some famous athletes that used, during their careers and competitions, anabolic steroids. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you know most of them. III Famous Athletes who used anabolic steroids A. Heidi Krieger B. Ben Johnson C. Mark McGwire D. Florence Griffith Joyner E. Brian Bosworth F. Arnold Schwarzenegger G. John Kordic H. Danny Harris I. Lyle Alzado TRANSITION: Ok, I will now proceed to mention some of the harmful effects that this drug has on the athletes that use and abuse them. IV Effects A. Damage to the kidneys and liver B.Alteration of the balance of the natural hormones C. Some male users form breasts D. Serious acne problems E. When used by teens it can cause stunted growth F. Genital changes, water retention, yellow eyes, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and changes in cholesterol levels G. Ligament injuries and sterility H. Women run the risk of male pattern baldness I. Coma and death J. HIV transmission K. Withdrawal symptoms L. Depression TRANSITION: After mentioning the harmful effects, I will explain some solutions that should be taken to reduce the use of this dangerous drug by all athletes.V Solutions A. Legal 1. Restrictive laws 2. Penalties B. Education: Change of athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude 3. Thorough knowledge of the sport's physical demands and requirements 4. Maintenance of a healthy lifestyle 5. Appreciation of the satisfaction that comes from participation TRANSITION: After my presentation, you should now understand why some athletes use anabolic steroids and the effects this drug has on them. SUMMARY Now, you understand the most important facts of anabolic steroids in sports. I Description and definition II Reasons for using III Famous Athletes IV EffectsV Solutions Concluding Remarks In conclusion, any athlete of any age should be educated in light of the hazard and negative effects that the anabolic steroids has on a body. Some athletes persist in taking them, believing that these substances provide a competitive advantage. But beyond the issues of popularity or legality is the fact that anabolic steroids can cause serious physical and psycholo gical side effects. ACTUAL SPEECH INTRODUCTION I. An athlete is a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina.Athletes train and practice year-round to prepare for the competition and challenges. Most high school, college, amateur and professional athletes participate in sports for the opportunity to pit their abilities against those of their peers, and to experience the satisfaction that comes from playing to their potential. Others do so to satisfy a desire for recognition and fame. Unfortunately all this creates some athletes who are determined to win at any cost. Have you heard or know of anyone who has used anabolic steroids? II. Today I will give you some interesting facts about the use of anabolic steroids in sports.A. Description and definition B. Reasons for using C. Famous Athletes D. Effects E. Solutions TRANSITION: To better understand my report, first we should know what anabolic steroids are. BODY Ana bolic steroids are Ã¢â¬Å"any of a group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone, are used medically especially to promote tissue growth, and are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve enduranceÃ¢â¬ . Non-medical use of anabolic steroids is illegal and banned by most major sports organizations.In January 2005, the Anabolic Steroid Control Act was amended with the Controlled Substance Act that added anabolic steroids and prohormones (a precursor to a hormone) to the list of controlled substances and makes possession of the substances a federal crime. TRANSITION: You may be asking by now, what are the reasons that make athletes use these drugs? TRANSITION: Now, I will mention some famous athletes that used, during their careers and competitions, anabolic steroids. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you know most of them. Over the years many professional athletes have been focus of the media, after being caught using anabol ic steroids.To name only a few, here are some examples. Heidi Krieger proved herself one of the world's top athletes in the 1980s, winning medal after medal in the shot put for East Germany. Heidi Krieger, the 1986 European women's shot-put champion, became Andreas Krieger after a sex-change operation in 1997. He said he had been fed so many steroids by his coaches without his knowledge that physical and emotional problems began. We remember when Ben Johnson was stripped of his gold medal in the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Many athletes that were seen as heroes had their problems with anabolic use.Good examples of athletes that were made to look like heroes were Mark McGwire and Florence Griffith Joyner. Flo Jo was suspected of drug abuse when she won her gold medals in the Olympics. She was tested ten years after the Olympics and came up negative, but most steroids are out of a person's system within weeks. She was idolized by millions, so no other discussions came up on the topic of her drug use until her death. She was said to have died in a fit of epileptic seizures. Later investigations showed she died of cardiac problems, a health problem that can be brought on by steroid use.According to CBS News, other examples of professional athletes that used steroids were Brian Bosworth, Arnold Schwarzenegger, and John Kordic. American Danny Harris ranked number one in the hurdles in 1991, failed a drug test, and was suspended for four years. The best known case of steroid use was Lyle Alzado. Lyle, the former defensive end, had an inoperable brain tumor that left his once-massive body ravaged. He blames years of heavy use of steroids and human growth hormones. Alzado took steroids almost daily for nearly 20 years. This prolonged use killed him.TRANSITION: Ok, I will now proceed to mention some of the harmful effects that this drug has on the athletes that use and abuse them. The negative effects of this drug are many. Some of the negative effects of the drugs are damage to the kidneys and liver. A person can also alter the balance of the natural hormones. This can cause detrimental affects to the body. The effects of your natural hormones being out of balance can last several years after being off the drugs. Some male users form breasts due to the use of steroids. Because of the increase in testosterone, steroids can cause serious acne problems.When used by teens it can cause stunted growth. Other side effects include genital changes, water retention, yellow eyes, coronary artery disease, ligament injuries, high blood pressure, and changes in cholesterol levels, sterility and liver disease. The list goes on and on. Women that use steroids run the risk of male pattern baldness. Some effects of steroids are even worse. Some people fall into comas after injecting the drugs, some may even die from the injections. Sometimes, athletes who use anabolic steroids may share the needles, syringes or other equipment they use to inject these drugs.By sharing ne edles, syringes or other equipment, a person becomes a high risk for HIV transmission. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. Athletes who use steroids can also experience withdrawal symptoms when they quit. The symptoms include mood swings, depression, fatigue and irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia, and aggression. Depression can even lead to suicide attempts, if untreated. TRANSITION: After mentioning the harmful effects, I will explain some solutions that should be taken to reduce the use of this dangerous drug by all athletes.The attitude of winning at any cost embraced by some athletes must be redirected and replaced by personal dedication to the sport; a thorough knowledge of the sport's physical demands and requirements; maintenance of a healthy lifestyle; and, an appreciation of the satisfaction that comes from participation. Our athletes should be educated since their early age about the effects and consequences of using anabolic steroids. There should be also restrictive laws and penalties for the athletes that are caught using this drug, no matter their fame or money.TRANSITION: After my presentation, you should now understand why some athletes use anabolic steroids and the effects this drug has on them. CONLUSION I. Now, you understand the most important facts of anabolic steroids in sports. a. Description and definition b. Reasons for using c. Famous Athletes d. Effects e. Solutions II. In conclusion, any athlete of any age should be educated in light of the hazard and negative effects that the anabolic steroids has on a body. Some athletes persist in taking them, believing that these substances provide a competitive advantage.But beyond the issues of popularity or legality is the fact that anabolic steroids can cause serious physical and psychological side effects. VISUAL AIDS 1. List of ideas a. Power point presentation of pictures of anabolic steroids, famous athletes that have used the drug, and their pictures before and after using them. b. Short captions or tapes of the athletes during their performances. 2. Power point, because the captions or tapes can be inserted in the presentation. 3. The visual aid could be used as guide in each of the transitions.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Battle of Saratoga was fought September 19 and October 7, 1777, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). In the spring of 1777, Major General John Burgoyne proposed a plan for defeating the Americans. Believing that New England was the seat of the rebellion, he proposed cutting the region off from the other colonies by moving down the Hudson River corridor while a second force, led by Colonel Barry St. Leger, advanced east from Lake Ontario. Meeting at Albany, they would press down the Hudson, while General William Howes army advanced north from New York. British Plans An attempt to capture Albany from the north had been attempted the previous year, but the British commander, Sir Guy Carleton, had elected to withdraw after the Battle of Valcour Island (October 11) citing the lateness of the season. On February 28, 1777, Burgoyne presented his plan to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord George Germain. Reviewing the documents, he granted Burgoyne permission to move forward and appointed him to lead the army that would invade from Canada. Germain did so having already approved a plan from Howe that called for the British army in New York City to advance against the American capital at Philadelphia. Ã It is unclear whether Burgoyne was aware of Howes intentions to attack Philadelphia before he left Britain. Though Howe was later informed that he should support Burgoynes advance, he was not specifically told what this should entail. Additionally, Howes seniority precluded Burgoyne from issuing him orders. Writing in May, Germain told Howe that he expected the Philadelphia campaign to be concluded in time to assist Burgoyne, but his letter contained no specific orders. Burgoyne Advances Moving forward that summer, Burgoynes advance initially met with success as Fort Ticonderoga was captured and Major General Arthur St. Clairs command forced to retreat. Pursuing the Americans, his men won a victory at the Battle of Hubbardton on July 7. Pressing down from Lake Champlain, the British advance was slow as the Americans diligently worked to block the roads south. The British plan began to unravel in quick succession as Burgoyne became plagued by supply issues. To help remedy this issue, he dispatched a column led by Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum to raid Vermont for supplies. This force encountered American forces led by Brigadier General John Stark on August 16. In the resulting Battle of Bennington, Baum was killed and his predominantly Hessian command suffered over fifty percent casualties. The loss resulted in the desertion of many of Burgoynes Native American allies. Burgoynes situation was further worsened by news that St. Leger had turned back and that Howe had left New York to begin a campaign against Philadelphia. Alone and with his supply situation worsening, he elected to move south in an effort to take Albany before winter. Opposing his advance was an American army under the command of Major General Horatio Gates. Appointed to the position on August 19, Gates inherited an army that was rapidly growing due to the success at Bennington, outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea by Burgoynes Native Americans, and the arrival of militia units. Gates army also benefited from General George Washingtons earlier decision to send north his best field commander, Major General Benedict Arnold, and Colonel Daniel Morgans rifle corps. Armies Commanders Americans Major General Horatio GatesMajor General Benedict ArnoldColonel Daniel Morgan9,000 growing to 15,000 men British Major General John Burgoyne7,200 declining to 6,600 men Battle of Freemans Farm On September 7, Gates moved north from Stillwater and occupied a strong position atop Bemis Heights, approximately ten miles south of Saratoga. Along the heights, elaborate fortifications were constructed under the eye of engineer Thaddeus Kosciusko which commanded the river and the road to Albany. In the American camp, tensions festered as the relationship between Gates and Arnold soured. Despite this, Arnold was given command of the left wing of the army and the responsibility for preventing the capture of heights to the west which dominated the Bemis position. Crossing the Hudson north of Saratoga between September 13-15, Burgoyne advanced on the Americans. Hampered by American efforts to block the road, heavy woods, and broken terrain, Burgoyne was not in position to attack until September 19. Seeking to take the heights to the west, he devised a three-prong attack. While Baron Riedesel advanced with a mixed British-Hessian force along the river, Burgoyne and Brigadier General James Hamilton would move inland before turning south to attack Bemis Heights. The third column under Brigadier General Simon Fraser would move further inland and work to turn the American left. Arnold and Morgan Attack Aware of British intentions, Arnold lobbied Gates to attack while the British were marching through the woods. Though preferring to sit and wait, Gates finally relented and permitted Arnold to advance Morgans riflemen along with some light infantry. He also stated that if the situation required, Arnold could involve more of his command. Moving forward to an open field on the farm of Loyalist John Freeman, Morgans men soon sighted the lead elements of Hamiltons column. Opening fire, they targeted the British officers before advancing. Driving back the lead company, Morgan was forced to retreat into the woods when Frasers men appeared on his left. With Morgan under pressure, Arnold funneled additional forces into the fight. Through the afternoon intense fighting raged around the farm with Morgans riflemen decimating the British artillery. Sensing an opportunity to crush Burgoyne, Arnold requested additional troops from Gates but was refused and issued orders to fall back. Ignoring these, he continued the fight. Hearing the battle along the river, Riedesel turned inland with most of his command. Appearing on the American right, Riedesels men rescued the situation and opened a heavy fire. Under pressure and with the sun setting, the Americans withdrew back to Bemis Heights. Though a tactical victory, Burgoyne suffered over 600 casualties as opposed to around 300 for the Americans. Consolidating his position, Burgoyne put off further attacks in the hope that Major General Sir Henry Clinton could provide assistance from New York City. While Clinton did raid up the Hudson in early October, he was not able to provide aid. In the American camp, the situation between the commanders reached a crisis when Gates did not mention Arnold in his report to Congress regarding the Freemans Farm battle. Devolving into a shouting match, Gates relieved Arnold and gave his command to Major General Benjamin Lincoln. Though granted a transfer back to Washingtons army, Arnold remained as more and more men arrived in camp. Battle of Bemis Heights Concluding the Clinton was not coming and with his supply situation critical Burgoyne called a council of war. Though Fraser and Riedesel advocated retreat, Burgoyne refused and they agreed instead upon a reconnaissance in force against the American left on October 7. Led by Fraser, this force numbered around 1,500 men and advanced from Freeman Farm to the Barber Wheatfield. Here it encountered Morgan as well as the brigades of Brigadier Generals Enoch Poor and Ebenezer Learned. While Morgan attacked the light infantry on Frasers right, Poor shattered the grenadiers on the left. Hearing the fighting, Arnold dashed from his tent and took de facto command. With his line collapsing, Fraser tried to rally his men but was shot and killed. Beaten, the British fell back to the Balcarres Redoubt at Freemans Farm and Breymanns Redoubt slightly to the northwest. Attacking Balcarres, Arnold was initially repulsed, but worked men around the flank and took it from behind. Organizing an attack on Breymanns, Arnold was shot in the leg. The redoubt subsequently fell to American assaults. In the fighting, Burgoyne lost another 600 men, while American losses were only around 150. Gates remained in camp for the duration of the battle. Aftermath The next evening, Burgoyne began withdrawing north. Halting at Saratoga and with his supplies exhausted, he called a council of war. While his officers favored fighting their way north, Burgoyne ultimately decided to open surrender negotiations with Gates. Though he initially demanded an unconditional surrender, Gates agreed to a treaty of convention whereby Burgoynes men would be taken to Boston as prisoners and permitted to return to England on the condition that they not fight in North America again. On October 17, Burgoyne surrendered his remaining 5,791 men. The turning point of the war, the victory at Saratoga proved key in securing a treaty of alliance with France.